Resources for New Testament Exegesis

Provided by: Roy E. Ciampa, Ph.D.

Professor of New Testament

Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary


Welcome to Resources for New Testament Exegesis.  This site has been prepared for my students at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary but I am happy to know that others have found it useful as well.  I would be very grateful for reports of errors or broken links.  (My e-mail address is composed of my first initial and last name [all as one word] I highly recommend checking out my Desktop Two, the compact page of links and tools that I use for most of my online research. That page gets updated more frequently than this one.


Orientation for Writing Exegesis Papers (These are general guidelines.  Be sure to consult your professor regarding his or her expectations.) The structure I prefer for exegesis papers for my courses.  Guide to Footnote and Bibliography Style for Articles and Commentaries (following The SBL Handbook of Style).  Further Guidelines for Footnote and Bibliography Style (following The SBL Handbook of Style).  SBL Student Supplement (guidance from the SBL for students writing papers in college or seminary).  Be sure to review what plagiarism is and how to avoid it.


The Student, the Fish, and Agassiz, by Samuel H. Scudder.  An insightful story about the importance of patient and rigorous inductive study.


Abbreviations for Ancient Literature (According to the standards of The SBL Handbook of Style.  Use the search feature within your browser to find the author, work, or abbreviation you need).


Journal and Reference Work Abbreviations (According to the standards of The SBL Handbook of Style.  Use the search feature within your browser to find the work or abbreviation you need).


Bibliographic Research in Biblical Studies


Resources for New Testament Textual Criticism


The Analytikon: A New Testament Greek Grammar Review Tool.  A great way to get that rust off your Greek!  Refresh and sharpen your basic knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, word functions and translation.  A great tool put together by wonderful friends and colleagues at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary.


The Perseus Project: Lexical Form and Morphological Analysis (Parsing)  Find the lexical form and all possible parsings of any Greek word.


Early Jewish Literature (links to primary sources).


Scripture Indices for Early Jewish Literature.


The Use of the Old Testament in the New.


Septuagint (LXX)


Links to (Older) Modern (mainly English-)Greek Lexicons (for partial tracing of English-Greek Lexicography)


Greco-Roman Sources


Google Bookmarks (bookmarked sites from the ministries of Jesus and Paul)


ORBIS: The Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World


New Testament Research Reference Sheet (prepared by James Darlack of the GCTS Goddard Library).


Reference Charts for Textual Criticism. On this page you will find charts I have prepared in an attempt to place key information at the fingertips of my students for their work in textual criticism. An outdated Portuguese version of these charts is also available (but should be compared to updated information).


Aland & Aland, The Text of the New Testament (search inside the book for the information you need). To find the contents of NT papyri search inside the book for “Contents Papyri Matthew Mark Luke John 28” (without the quotation marks) and click on the link.  To find the contents of NT uncial manuscripts search inside the book for “Contents Uncial 0298” (for Matthew-Luke), “Contents Uncial continued 0299” (for John-Epistles), or “Contents Uncial continued Thessalonians” (for more epistles-Revelation) and click on the link.  You may also want to search inside Bruce M. Metzger’s The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration.

Everett Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity (search inside the book for the information you need).  This is a superb introduction to the most basic background information.  You will want to consult your professor’s bibliography and/or some of the other more detailed background studies listed under Biblical Studies Resources at


Silva Rhetoricae - The Forest of Rhetoric: A website providing a wonderful “guide to the terms of classical and renaissance rhetoric.”

Charts for the Transliteration of Greek and Hebrew


Reference Manual for New Testament Interpretation (© various).  This document reflects the latest edition of a variety of sources prepared or employed by various professors who have taught New Testament exegesis at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary over many years.


Non-Indicative Verbs of the LXX, NT Josephus and Philo (based on BibleWorks databases).  You may find this chart helpful in deciding whether there is any significance to an author’s use of a present vs. aorist imperative, subjunctive or infinitive verb.  Often one can discern a default usage for a particular verb, or stylistic tendencies that vary from author to author.  Before making a statement about the significance of a present or aorist imperative, subjunctive or infinitive one should look up the particular verb in this chart to see how much variation is found in these sources     


Chart of Synoptic Parallels.  From the index to the English edition of Kurt Aland’s Synopsis of the Four Gospels.  The Greek text edition of this volume is highly recommended for anyone doing research on the Gospels. 


“Advice for Christian Philosophers” by Alvin Plantinga.  From Faith and Philosophy: Journal of the Society of Christian Philosophers.



Software/Web Tutorials


Basic Searches in BibleWorks


Searching Greek in BibleWorks


BibleWorks Command Line Examples


Basic Searches with Perseus Project


How to Read Virtually Any Greek Text (hyperbolically named)


Searching Brill’s Dead Sea Scrolls in English


Searching Brill’s Dead Sea Scrolls in Hebrew


Bibliographic Research


Perseus Project Quicktorial (by James Darlack)


TLG (Thesaurus Linguae Graecae) Quicktorial (by James Darlack)


EBSCO Tutorial. (Prepared by James Darlack)


Logos/Libronix Video Tutorials


Free Downloads


The Adobe Acrobat Reader


I recommend the Firefox web browser.  (Try using the tab feature to keep several web pages open in the same window.)


Need to write Greek or Hebrew in Unicode, or convert SPIonic font to Unicode?  Check out Unicorn

Hebrew and Greek font files from BibleWorks

Biblical fonts from the Society of Biblical Literature

SIL fonts for Greek, Hebrew and transliteration.  I recommend their Apparatus font for symbols used in textual criticism.  I recommend their Doulos SIL font for transliteration.  The Doulos SIL font is a Unicode font.  You will find the Tavultesoft Keyman program very helpful for writing with Unicode fonts.  I recommend the IPA Unicode 1.0.5 Keyman 6 Keyboard for working with the Doulos SIL font.

For information on other Unicode fonts for Greek and Hebrew see the Tyndale Tech article on the subject by David Instone-Brewer.

Google Earth Bookmarks for New Testament Sites


Other Useful Links for New Testament Research


Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology

Biblical Manuscripts Project

Biblical Theology Briefings: Biblical Theology Articles

Brenton’s English Translation of the Septuagint

Christian Apocrypha (English translations)

Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum

Διοτίμα [Diotima]: Materials for the Study of Women and Gender in the Ancient World  

Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri

Early Church Fathers in English

Early Church Fathers in Greek

Examples of Grammatical Diagrams of the Greek New Testament

Greco-Roman Authors On-Line

Holy Land Photos

Jewish Synagogues in the Second Temple Period

Josephus’ Works (English translation)

LacusCurtius: Into the Roman World

Lefkowitz and Fant, Women’s Life in Greece and Rome

Letters of Pliny the Younger (translation)

Liddell & Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon

Loeb Classical Library Timeline of Authors

Midrash Bibliography (Hebrew Union College)

New Testament Transcripts Website

Non-Canonical Literature (OT Apocrypha, OT Pseudepigrapha, etc.)

On-Line Texts related to the Bible

Papyri On-Line

Philo’s Works (English translation)

Plutarch’s Lives (translation)

Plutarch’s Table-Talk and Selected Essays (translation)

Reading Ancient Greek Texts

Resource Pages for Biblical Studies: Focusing on the early Christian writings and their social world

Resources for the Study of the Septuagint

Rodney Decker’s Resources for New Testament Studies

Search Index to ANRW (Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt)

Septuagint History


SIL Semantic and Structural Analysis Publications

Smyth’s Greek Grammar

Swete’s LXX (Greek)

TC Ebind Index (Digitized works of value to the study of biblical textual criticism)

Ted Hildebrandt’s E-Sources (articles on the OT and NT from conservative evangelical journals)

Textkit: Greek and Latin Learning Tools

The Catholic Encyclopedia

The Jewish Encyclopedia

The Nag Hammadi Library (translation of Gnostic literature - searchable)

The New Testament Gateway

The Online Critical [Old Testament] Pseudepigrapha

The Online Greek Bible (26th edition of the Nestle-Aland text)

The Paul Page (Dedicated to the New Perspective on Paul)

The Perseus Project Greek Words in Context

The Perseus Project: Lexical Form and Morphological Analysis (Parsing)

The Review of Biblical Literature

The Unbound Bible (search Bibles in various languages, including Greek)

The Unbound Bible Greek Lexical Parser

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG – must be accessed from GCTS)

Wieland Willker’s Bible-Links Pages

On the Ancient Near East:

ABZU: A Guide to information related to the study of the Ancient Near East on the Web

Ancient Near Eastern Texts

Electronic Publication of Ancient Near Eastern Texts

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

March 2013