Resources for Textual Criticism



    Age, Text-Type and Aland Category of Witnesses to the Text of the New Testament:

Greek Manuscripts (Use this chart to find the date and Aland quality category for any Greek MS, including Papyri, Uncials, Minuscules, Lectionaries)

Contents of Greek MSS (compare with the list in the latest edition of the Nestle-Aland text)

Consistently Cited MSS of NA28

Versions (Latin, Syriac, Coptic, etc.)

Church Fathers (listed in NA27 or UBS4)

Basic Worksheet

Key Questions

Symbols and Abbreviations of NA27 (for Latin words and phrases use this link and ask your professor for help if you still do not understand what it means).


Other Important Text Criticism Sites:

Institute for New Testament Textual Research New Testament Transcripts Prototype (see font requirements)

          List of suffixes that are frequently used on the INTTRNTTP website (e.g., T, C, Z, K, V).  (in Portuguese)

Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts

New Testament Gateway Textual Criticism Links

The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism

Virtual Manuscripts Room (best in Firefox or Safari)

Images of P46 (the part housed at the University of Michigan).  See also this introduction to P46

Images of P52 (earliest known fragment of the NT in any language) John 18:31-33 (recto), John 18:37-38 (verso)

Codex Sinaiticus

BibleWorks™ Manuscript Project

Origen’s Hexapla (ed. F. Field), Volume 1; Volume 2; The Hexapla Institute

Richard Wilson’s Site for New Testament Textual Criticism

Perseus Search Tools (may analyze Latin words used in an apparatus as well as other uses)

Wieland Willker’s Textual Criticism Links

Evangelical Textual Criticism (blog)

GreekGeek.netWebsite with technical tools to assist students in writing exegesis papers.  Especially helpful for installing Greek fonts and for preparing text-critical charts for external evidence regarding textual variants in the Greek New Testament.

Aland & Aland, The Text of the New Testament (search inside the book for the information you need). To find the contents of NT papyri search inside the book for “Contents Papyri Matthew Mark Luke John 28” (without the quotation marks) and click on the link.  To find the contents of NT uncial manuscripts search inside the book for “Contents Uncial 0298” (for Matthew-Luke), “Contents Uncial continued 0299” (for John-Epistles), or “Contents Uncial continued Thessalonians” (for more epistles-Revelation) and click on the link. 

Bruce Manning Metzger, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration.

Bruce Manning Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Paleography

Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies on the Text of the New Testament

TC Ebind Index (Digitized works of value to the study of biblical textual criticism).  Use “any” (without the quotation marks) for username and password.